A randomized-controlled clinical trial investigating the effect of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on markers of insulin metabolism and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes

  • Mohsen Taghizadeh
    Affiliations
    Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran
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  • Mehri Jamilian
    Affiliations
    Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
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  • Maryam Mazloomi
    Affiliations
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran
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  • Marzieh Sanami
    Affiliations
    Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Present address: Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
    Zatollah Asemi
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, Kashan PO Box 8715988141, Iran.
    Footnotes
    1 Present address: Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
    Affiliations
    Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Present address: Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
Published:December 28, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2015.12.017

      Highlights

      • This study was designed to determine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on glucose homeostasis parameters and lipid concentrations among women with GDM.
      • Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation in GDM women had beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis parameters.
      • Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation in GDM had beneficial effects on serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations.

      Background

      Limited data are available that evaluated the effects of combined omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E supplementation on glucose homeostasis parameters and lipid concentrations in gestational diabetes (GDM).

      Objectives

      The present study was designed to determine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on glucose homeostasis parameters and lipid concentrations among women with GDM who were not on oral hypoglycemic agents.

      Methods

      This prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out among 60 patients with GDM. Patients were randomly allocated to take either 1000-mg omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil plus 400-IU vitamin E supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 6 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained from at the beginning of the study and after 6-week intervention to quantify related variables.

      Results

      After 6 weeks of intervention, changes in fasting plasma glucose (−11.8 ± 11.0 vs +1.5 ± 11.9 mg/dL, P < .001), serum insulin concentrations (−1.8 ± 6.9 vs +5.8 ± 12.1 μIU/mL, P = .004), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (−0.8 ± 1.6 vs +1.4 ± 2.8, P = .001), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated beta cell function (−0.2 ± 27.7 vs +22.8 ± 48.2, P = .02), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.01 ± 0.02 vs −0.01 ± 0.02, P = .01) in the omega-3 fatty acids plus vitamin E group were significantly different from the changes in these indicators in the placebo group. Changes in serum triglycerides (+10.8 ± 41.5 vs +34.2 ± 35.5 mg/dL, P = .02), VLDL-cholesterol (+2.1 ± 8.3 vs +6.8 ± 7.1 mg/dL, P = .02), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)–cholesterol (+11.6 ± 18.8 vs +1.7 ± 15.9 mg/dL, P = .03) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations (+1.9 ± 8.7 vs −2.4 ± 7.7 mg/dL, P = .04) were significantly different between the supplemented women and placebo group. However, after controlling for baseline total cholesterol levels, maternal age, and BMI at baseline, the changes in serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations were not significantly different between the 2 groups. We did not find any significant effect of joint omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E supplementation on total cholesterol concentrations.

      Conclusions

      Overall, we demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation in GDM women had beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis parameters, serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, but it did not influence total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels.

      Keywords

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