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Association between circadian preference and blood lipid levels using a 1:1:1 propensity score matching analysis

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Y-J Kwon and T-H Chung are co-first authors who equally contribute to this work.
    Yu-Jin Kwon
    Footnotes
    1 Y-J Kwon and T-H Chung are co-first authors who equally contribute to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Family Medicine, Yong-In Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gyoung-gi, Republic of Korea

    Department of Medicine, Graduate School of Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Y-J Kwon and T-H Chung are co-first authors who equally contribute to this work.
    Tae-Ha Chung
    Footnotes
    1 Y-J Kwon and T-H Chung are co-first authors who equally contribute to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Health Medicine, Severance Hospital, Severance check-up, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Hye Sun Lee
    Affiliations
    Department of Research Affairs, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • JuYoung Park
    Affiliations
    Department of Research Affairs, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Ji-Youn Chung
    Affiliations
    Department of Family Medicine, Gangnam Severance Health Check-up, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 B-K Lee and J-W Lee are co-corresponding authors who equally contribute to this work.
    Byoung-Kwon Lee
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Cardiology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 211 Eonju-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-720, Republic of Korea.
    Footnotes
    2 B-K Lee and J-W Lee are co-corresponding authors who equally contribute to this work.
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    2 B-K Lee and J-W Lee are co-corresponding authors who equally contribute to this work.
    Ji-Won Lee
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Department of Family Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, 211 Eonju-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-720, Republic of Korea.
    Footnotes
    2 B-K Lee and J-W Lee are co-corresponding authors who equally contribute to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Family Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Y-J Kwon and T-H Chung are co-first authors who equally contribute to this work.
    2 B-K Lee and J-W Lee are co-corresponding authors who equally contribute to this work.
Published:April 29, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2019.04.007

      Highlights

      • Circadian rhythms regulate a variety of physiological functions in humans.
      • This cross-sectional study was conducted using 1:1:1 propensity score matching.
      • Evening preference potentially has a more atherogenic lipid profile.
      • The circadian rhythm plays a key role in lipid metabolism.

      Background

      Previous studies indicate that circadian preference is associated with various energy metabolism and metabolic disorders. However, little is known about the associations between a circadian rhythm and blood lipid levels, especially in humans.

      Objective

      The aim of the study was to investigate whether the circadian rhythm affects serum lipid levels in Korean adults.

      Methods

      We designed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the associations between circadian preference and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A total of 1984 participants (range of age 19–81 years) were included in this study. Propensity scores were calculated using logistic regression with age, sex, and body mass index. A total of 435 subjects were evaluated by propensity score matching analysis, equally distributed into morningness, intermediate, and eveningness groups, each with 145 subjects. Circadian preference was evaluated by the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire.

      Results

      Participants with the evening preference had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non–HDL-C) when compared with those with morning or intermediate preference, after adjusting for confounding variables. Regarding other lipid parameters, both total cholesterol/HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C in the evening preference are significantly higher than those of other circadian preferences. Evening preference was also significantly associated with a higher atherogenic index of plasma.

      Conclusion

      Our study demonstrates that there is a significant association between circadian preference and blood lipid levels. Our findings suggest that individuals with evening preference could have a greater risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

      Keywords

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