- •Hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis recurrence rate is high.
- •High triglyceride (TG) level post attack is closely associated with recurrence.
- •Controlling TG below 5.65 mmol/L may be an effective strategy to prevent recurrence.
- •Glucose should be controlled below 7.0 mmol/L for preventing recurrence.
- •Long-term TG lowering drugs treatment decreases recurrence.
Data on recurrent hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HTG-AP) are scarce.
To investigate the incidence and risk factors for recurrence of HTG-AP, and the effect of triglyceride (TG) lowering drugs post index attack on recurrence.
This study was a prospective cohort study of adult patients with first episode of HTG-AP from December 2019 to February 2021 who were followed until recurrence or death, or February 2022. The cumulative incidence function and Fine and Gray's competing-risk model were applied to the analyses.
A total of 317 patients were enrolled, and the 12-month and 18-month cumulative recurrence incidences were 8% and 22%, respectively. The cumulative recurrence incidence was 2 times higher in patients whose serum TG levels post index attack were ≥5.65 mmol/L (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–3.80; P = 0.034) compared to patients with TG <5.65 mmol/L. The recurrence rate was 3.3 times higher in patients whose glucose levels post index attack were ≥7.0 mmol/L (SHR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.56–7.03; P = 0.002) than in patients with glucose <7.0 mmol/L). Compared to TG lowering drugs for less than 1 month post index attack, treatment for longer than 12 months decreased the incidence of recurrence by 75% (SHR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08–0.80; P = 0.019).
The HTG-AP recurrence incidence is high and closely associated with high levels of TGs and glucose post index attack. Long-term TG lowering drugs treatment significantly decreases this recurrence.
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Published online: November 23, 2022
Accepted: November 9, 2022
Received: July 21, 2022
© 2023 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of National Lipid Association.